# Artificially Induced Nuclear Reactions

In 1919 Rutherford performed the first artificial nuclear reaction. He was able to demonstrate that when α particles are introduced into a closed sample of N2 gas, an occasional collision led to the formation of an isotope of O and the release of a proton:

${}_{\text{2}}^{\text{4}}\text{He + }{}_{\text{7}}^{\text{14}}\text{N }\to \text{ }{}_{\text{8}}^{\text{17}}\text{O + }{}_{\text{1}}^{\text{1}}\text{H}$      (1)

Since then many thousands of nuclear reactions have been studied, most of them produced by the bombardment of stable forms of matter with a beam of nucleons or light nuclei as projectiles. Particles which have been used for this purpose include protons, neutrons, deuterons (21H) , α particles, and B, C, N, and O nuclei.